Sunday, May 24, 2020

Khrushchev and Kennedy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2214 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2019/05/13 Category Politics Essay Level High school Tags: John F Kennedy Essay Did you like this example? Khrushchev and Kennedy: Who Had the Biggest Corn Cob? When asked to name 5 presidents off the top of their head prior to the 21st century, most of the American population would probably name John F. Kennedy as one of them. It appears that long after his assassination nearly 55 years ago, the reputation of the Kennedy administration is still dubbed as one of Americas greats. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Khrushchev and Kennedy" essay for you Create order Perhaps this has a great deal to do with his familys popularity in the public eye and not the actual proceedings of his administration. Although John F. Kennedy is revered as being one of the most beloved presidents in American History, the blatant reality of his term in office is that of a counterproductive and increasingly immature presidency as shown from his foreign relations and internal command of the military during the hottest part of the cold war. The result of this brash presidency is one that had left a lasting impression on foreign and global relations for decades to come. Before the dubbing of his power in office, Kennedy illustrated great intelligence on the subject of domestic allocation of funds (OBrien). As part of the most recent wave of economists at the time, Kennedy was soon to enact his new domestic plan for public funding and tax cuts. In this, John F. Kennedy was able to decrease the unemployment rate by over 3% and reduce taxes for the common man. This was not the only progress he made; Kennedy also prompted the development of urban refurbishing projects, modern health care systems, and the promotion of the American arts. These domestic reforms, however, do not encompass the entirety of Kennedys term, rather they act as a lovely kind of fluff for the American people in order to cover up his international diplomatic shortcomings (Schlesinger). This being supposed, conflict between the United States and Russia during the cold war was unlikely to come to an end anytime soon specifically because of key interactions between Kennedy and Khrushch ev. Perhaps one of the most decisive interactions Kennedy had with the Soviet Union was, in part, the Vienna Summit, whereupon the Kennedy and Khrushchev discussed the happenings of the Berlin Crisis. The Berlin Crisis was a culmination of conflicts that began in 1950 between Soviet and Allied military blockade forces occupying the East and West blocs of Berlin after World War II. This engagement escalated greatly in the years of 60 to 61 when Soviet forces pushed further for the removal of the Allied militia. However, given the poverty rate and risk for yet another uprising in Berlin after World War two, Allies repudiated the situation until there were no other options. When British, French, and American militaries refused to quell the conflict, the Berlin Crisis ensued, and the Vienna Summit was arranged to meet the demands of both sides (Carmichael). Prior to the Vienna Summit Khrushchev attempted on multiple occasions to meet with Kennedy. On February 22nd, 1961 he addressed Kennedy as such: I hope it will be possible, before too long, for us to meet personally for an informal exchange of views (Kempe). Khrushchev believed greatly that the affair of the Berlin Crisis and other foreign affairs could be settled quite easily if only Kennedy would speak to Khrushchev (Ashton). This meeting was entirely a failure: the poor negotiating diplomacy of the United States resulted in the building of the Berlin Wall (Kempe). Yet at this time in May of ?61, Kennedy addressed the funding of NASA as an urgent national need. By partaking in frivolous proxy campaigns rather than taking on Khrushchev directly, as recommended of his advisors, Kennedy attempted to divert the attention of the Soviets. In this, astonishing technological achievements were made at the expense of world peace with the series of competitive maneuvers by both Soviet and Non -Soviet forces called The Space Race (Space Program). However, this urgent need proved a flump, as in April of the same year, the Soviet Union had already launched the very first man in space during the Vostok Program which lasted from 1960-1963, resulting in the first woman in space in 64and the first space walk in 65. Thus illustrating Americas lag in aerospace technology behind the USSR more publically than ever (Hall and Shayler). Rather than meet openly with Khrushchev, Kennedy diverted tactics away from USSR. Given the recent Laos affair in February, Kennedy pulled focus towards the newly emerging Third world countries (Laos). This tactic could also be seen in the Bay of Pigs incident on April 17th of the same year. In the Bay of Pigs Defeat, the US experienced a failed invasion of yet another Second world country, costing the United States government 54 million dollars and the embarrassing defeat of our own invasion from a Soviet-allied nation (The Bay of Pigs). To put that in perspective, the average gallon of milk at the time cost $0.47 whereas it now exceeds $3.11, putting those measly 54 million dollars now at an estimated 445 million given an 8.27 inflation increase from 1961 to 2018 (National Retail Report-Dairy). This incident not only negatively impacted external affairs, but also ignited a huge controversy involving the CIA when their ties to the Mafia were revealed. In the 1975 publication by the Church Committee in Senate, the CIA had insured a monopoly on gaming, prostitution, and drugs for the Mafia, thus shifting the American popular opinion on their own country and the overall morality standard that Britain and France held of the US (Church Committee). Rather than learning from his mistakes in Laos and Cuba, Kennedy launched another set of forces to quell the Soviet uprisings in South East Asia in ?62. Through a series of events involving the 194th Armored Brigade and the second drafting of American men in the last 10 years the Vietnam War began. Extending long after Kennedys era, the Vietnam Wars informal declaration initiated the brutally savage and utterly futile 13-year involvement of American forces against the Viet Kong (Wilson). The Vietnam War was so brutal that forty years later when the U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs conducted the first National Longitudinal Study on the impacts of PTSD, 11% of the male and 9% of female populations still experienced PTSD. Of those who still experienced PTSD from the Vietnam War in 1987, they had double the risk for death unrelated to suicide than those who did not still carry PTSD. This is only one of the effects of Vietnam on the American soldiers and does not enter into the impact that violently opposed public opinions of the war, and the soldiers, had on the unity of the United States population. Further, consideration also needs to be afforded regarding the tremendous emotional, mental, and economic toll that the war took on the already poverty-stricken civilians of Southern and Northern Vietnam (US Department of Veterans Affairs). On the contrary, instead of the diversions serving effectively to distract Khrushchev, Kennedys entertainment of such proxy wars only angered the USSR further. Kennedys actions then resulted in the Berlin Crisis of ?61 which prompted for the building the Berlin Wall. This wall did not just serve as a barrier between Soviet and Non-Soviet, but also a negotiating barrier between world superpowers that would solidify the relationship of Russia and the U.S. for years to come (Ashton). The Iron Curtain, as it were, set up the diplomatic wall between Russia, the United States, and even Cuba in the Missile Crisis of 1962. Rising closer and closer to mutual annihilation, the Cuban Missile Crisis breached a point that would scar worldviews for the next 55 years. Robert Kennedy, John F. Kennedys brother, insisted that the President did not want a military conflict and felt as though he had done everything possible to avoid a military engagement with Cuba and with the Soviet Union (Robert F. Kennedy). However, RFKs public position on the matter is far from the report Dobrynin, the Russian ambassador in Washington, gave to Khrushchev. In Dobrynin?s rather detailed report of his unofficial meeting with RFK, the string of events in the Cuban missile crisis seemingly had gotten so out of control that Kennedy was apprehensive about whether or not the military would overthrow him and seize power (Crankshaw). This, of course, was not a surprise as the aforementioned Jupiter Missiles already stationed in Turkey and Italy had undergone some extreme developments since 1957 (Hershberg). While the initial OK was given by Kennedy, plenty of military happenings were out of Kennedys hands in a time that required boundless attention to detail regarding milita ry involvement. The extremity of the situation was especially highlighted after the fiasco that was the Crisis of Berlin and the attempted overthrow of Cuba with the Bay of Pigs Invasion (or lack thereof). The nearing doomsday, nevertheless, did not stop the Joint Chiefs of Staff from pushing for a more aggressive response to the missiles in San Cristobal, Cuba; military command was illustrating yet again how little input was needed from the president to control the balance of the American and Russian futures (The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962). It was in those final moments that Kennedy gave the final say. Kennedy chose to mend the wrongs he had made in the past 13 days. This decision would label America as the peacemaker of the event, thus undermining the blatant candor: America was the aggressor. The entire year of 63 had been filled with triumphs and tragedies in American civil rights. Kennedy and his close relations acted as a forefront of this in pushing for Civil Rights Act which was enacted in 64 and the Equal Pay Act against gender discrimination. It is significant to note as well that Kennedy was not actually the one to carry through with these acts, rather, his predecessor Lyndon B. Johnson did without any credit of course (LBJ). In spite of all of the failures of 61 and 612, Kennedy served his last year on a high note for minorities across America, making him one of the most popular public figures in American popular culture. So, on November 22nd, 1964, when John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas the American people immortalized Kennedys administration in the 20th century rivaling only Franklin Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan (A Nation in Upheaval, 1954-1975). Four days later, the United States people had very little to be grateful for that Thanksgiving, and so instead they made Kennedy a martyr. Despite the many shortcomings in the first two years of his presidency, John F. Kennedy is still seen as one of the most beloved presidents in United Stated History. In swooning the American people with lavishing reforms, the vile impacts of war, invasion, and political intimidation were all but washed away. Modern society took a more optimistic view of his candidacy, seeking the brighter side of a very dark era in place of the harsh reality of the United States past. Indeed, his reforms set a precedent in American civil rights and public funding, but it cannot be refuted that the mistakes of the Kennedy administration resulted in an even worse precedent of cold foreign policy for the days nearing closer to the end of the Soviet Union. Thus, history has donned a sweeter coat in defense of Kennedys short term as president. After all, no one can steal from a dead man, not even his reputation. Work Cited A Nation in Upheaval, 1954-1975. American History, ABC-CLIO, 2018, americanhistory2.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/270426. Accessed 10 Oct. 2018. Ashton, N. (2002). Kennedy, Macmillan and the Cold War: The Irony of Interdependence Church Committee (20 November 1975). Alleged assassination plots involving foreign leaders Crankshaw, trans. and ed. by Strobe Talbott. (1970). Khrushchev Remembers. Boston: Little, n.d. Cuban Missile Crisis. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Presidential Library and Museum, www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/jfk-in-history/cuban-missile-crisis. Hall, Rex and David Shayler. The Rocket Men: Vostok Voskhod, the first Soviet manned spaceflights. Springer, May 18, 2001. Hershberg, Jim. JFK and the Diem Coup: Declassified Records. National Security Archives, The George Washington University, Spring 1995, nsarchive2.gwu.edu//nsa/cuba_mis_cri/moment.htm. Kempe, Frederick. Berlin 1961. New York: G.P. Putnams Sons, 2011. Kennedy, Robert F., Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis (New York: New American Library, n.d. Laos. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Laos.aspx. LBJ. Biography, LBJ Presidential Library, www.lbjlibrary.org/lyndon-baines-johnson/lbj-biography. National Retail Report-Dairy. Dairy Market News Branch, USDA, 16 Nov. 2018, www.ams.usda.gov/mnreports/dybretail.pdf. OBrien, Steven. John F. Kennedy. American History, ABC-CLIO, 2018, americanhistory2.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/247203. Accessed 24 Nov. 2018. Poole, Walter S (2013), Adapting to Flexible Response, 1960â€Å"1968, Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr (2002) [1965]. A Thousand Days: John F. Kennedy in the White House. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Space Program. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Space-Program.aspx. The Bay of Pigs. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, JFK Library, www.jfklibrary.org/learn/about-jfk/jfk-in-history/the-bay-of-pigs. The Cuban Missile Crisis, October 1962. Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State, history.state.gov/milestones/1961-1968/cuban-missile-crisis. US Department of Veterans Affairs, and Veterans Health Administration. PTSD and Vietnam Veterans: A Lasting Issue 40 Years Later. Public Health, 7 May 2015, www.publichealth.va.gov/exposures/publications/agent-orange/agent-orange-summer-2015/nvvls.asp. Wilson, John B. (1998). XII: Flexible Response. Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades. United States Army Center of Military History.

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Slavery As A Reason Of American Civil War - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 854 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/05/08 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Civil War Essay War Essay Did you like this example? After the Revolutionary War, the young United States of America was looking to change its ways. As a now independent Nation, they looked to set their own identity. One of the things they did was end what was known as the African Slave Trade in 1807. The end of the African Slave Trade was unknowingly the first step towards the American Civil War. With the discovery of the new world, all kinds of people traveled to the new Colonies in hopes of becoming wealthy. One of the ways they found they were able to do this was by setting up farms and growing exportable produce. Tobacco was the number one product coming out of the southern states to England and other parts of the world. Initially, large planters used indentured servants from England to tend to the fields. Between the 1650s and 1680s, indentured servants continued to be imported at the rate of some 1,000 per year (Mitchell, 1983). As the servants worked to pay off their debt to the large planters, they would earn their freedom and then find that jobs were tough to come by in America. There were few opportunities after their freedom was earned and they soon found themselves serving as domestic servants and tradesman sometimes for the same people they had just earned their freedom from. Others were able to become farmhands and laborers working mostly for the large planters, using their acquired skill set from their time as an indentured servant. As Englands employment opportunities increased overseas, English indentured servants became less available in America. As tobacco continued to be the main source of trade for the large planters, and with a rapid reduction of indentured servants, the Chesapeake Colonies (Dominion of Virginia and Province of Maryland) began to shift their workforce from servants to slavery and began using the well-established African Slave Trade. Prior to the Revolutionary War, Great Britain imported African Slaves primarily through the Royal Africa Company. Th is was an enormous revenue generator for Great Britain as they taxed all imported slaves to the new Colonies. This arrangement worked well mostly for Great Britain for many years until the Revolutionary War began. During the Revolutionary War, the Colonies banned and/or suspended slave trade with Great Britain as one of their first steps to freedom from the Crown. The non-important movement was an attempt to cut all economic ties with Britain. After the War, America passed legislation for the government to tax and control the import of slaves to America. In 1807, they passed more legislation and terminated the use of the African Slave Trade. The American people saw the closing of the African Slave Trade as a huge humanitarian accomplishment even though it brought much wealth to the Virginia slave owners, and economical and political power to the southwestern states. Unfortunately, it was only the beginning of a new problem. The closing of the African Slave Trade gave way to the American slave trade. Now that no more slaves were being imported, the slaves that were on hand would become a much more valuable asset. After cutting ties from Great Britain, Virginians found themselves with a surplus of slaves after the demand for tobacco had fallen (no more exporting to Britain). As a new means of revenue, they promoted the expansion west to new settlers. Virginians sold the idea that settlers would need American slaves to help cultivate the land to bring profits to the new land owners. One of the largest purchasers of slaves was the southwest. These cotton farmers depended on the slaves to tend to their lands. This expansion increased the price of a slave to an all-time high bringing wealth to the slave owners in Virginia. As the southwestern states became wealthier and more populated, they became the more powerful states in the south. With the election of President Abraham Lincoln, the threat of abolishing slavery was eminent. The southern state s felt that if slavery was abolished it would ruin the economy in the south. Not only would the planters lose the labor on their lands but that their lands would become useless with no one to work them. They believed this would not only affect the southern states but the entire countrys banks, stocks, and bonds. The southern states threatened that if any of the upper-southern states didnt succeed with them, they (the upper-southern states) would no longer be allowed to sell their slaves to them the powerful, wealthy southern landowners. With American slave trading as their main source of revenue, the upper-southern states would have ended up with a surplus of slaves with no one to sell them to. These States, who relied upon and did not have any moral opposition with owning slaves, saw the abolishment of slavery as a huge blow to their way of life. They felt that the only way they could preserve it was to succeeded from the Union who supported the complete abolishment of sla very. This perceived (and threatened) economic deterioration would ultimately lead Virginia to join the Confederate States. This led to the succession of the south and to the Civil War. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Slavery As A Reason Of American Civil War" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Telecommunication Free Essays

string(45) " a big powerful machine gone out of control\." TITLE PAGE CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN NIGERIA’S TELECOMMUNICATION SECTOR A CASE STUDY OF GLOBACOM NIGERIA LIMITED ENUGU ZONE BY EZEIGWE, GRACE CHINYERE BA/2007/163 A PROJECT REPORT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINSTRATION, CARITAS UNIVERSITY, AMORJI- NIKE, ENUGU, ENUGU STATE. IN PARTTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B. Sc. We will write a custom essay sample on Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Telecommunication or any similar topic only for you Order Now ) DEGREE IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. AUGUST, 2010. CERTIFICATION This is to certify that this project written by Ezeigwe G. Chinyere With Reg/No. BA/2007/163, has been duly supervised, approved and found adequate in scope and content for the award of Bachelor of Science Degree in Business Administration, in the Faculty of Management and Social Sciences, Department of Business Administration, Caritas University, Amorji Nike, Enugu, Enugu State. _______________________________________ Mr. Innocent UbawikeProf. Godwin Nwanguma Project Supervisor Head of Department, Business Administration Department ________________ _______________________ DateDate DEDICATION I dedicate this project work to God Almighty for His infinite mercy all through my studies and also, for the wisdom and inspirations towards the successful completion of this work. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All thanks and Praise be to All Mighty God, for His guidance, protection, mercy and love towards me. I thank Him for the wisdom, knowledge and inspiration throughout the period of my academic years. To my beloved parents, Mr. and Mrs, J. O. Ezeigwe, I lack words to express my feelings. Thanks for your love, prayers, and financial support. You are the best parents anyone can ever ask God for. I love you. To Emmanuel and Paul, you are the best choice of brothers. Big thanks go to my supervisor, Mr. Innocent Ubawike. May God bless you for your kindness, patience and good supervision. I also use this opportunity to say a big thank you to my Head of Department, Prof. G. Nwanguma. Thank you for filling my brain with a lot of good stuffs and I will miss your lectures. Also to Mr. Walter Ani, Mr. Agbo Melletus, Mr. Kenneth Eziedo. Thank you all for imparting knowledge in me. I promise you, by the Grace of God, it will not be a waste. Rebecca, Damilola, Kemi, Thecla Thanks. Roseline Adeloma, John Akaeme, Ebere Ugwuja, Lorreta, Nneka, you are the best choice of course mates one can ever wish for. George Henri Jonas, God bless you. To Ifezue Chukwunnamdi, thanks for everything. God bless you all. ABSTRACT The topic of the research is Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Telecommunication Sector (A case study of Globacom Nigeria Limited, Enugu). The researcher used survey design in the study. The population of the study was one hundred and twenty; comprising of both staff and customers of Globacom . The sample size was ninety two and it was determined using the yaro Yamane formula. The research used both the primary and secondary sources of data in the course of study. The primary data were collected through the instrument of questionnaire, interviews and observation. The secondary data were collected from text books, journals, magazines, newspaper and libraries. The research finding of the project work revealed that social responsibility programmes are necessary . he findings also unveiled that Globacom Nigeria, a telecommunication firm carries out its social responsibility programme in its host community. The researcher recommended that the company should increase and expand its social responsibility programmes. Corporate social responsibility is therefore something that a company should try and get right in implementing. It is something that business today should whole heartedly be committed to. The danger of ignoring social responsibility is too dangerous. . TABLE OF CONTENTS. Title page i Certification ii Dedication iii Acknowledgement iv Abstract v Table of content vi CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION . Background of Study 2. Statement of the Problem 3. Purpose of the Study 4. Research Questions / Hypothesis 5. Significance of study 6. Limitation of study 7. Scope of study 8. Definition of special terms CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2. 1Theoretical Framework 2. 2Historical Background 2. 3 Current Literature on theories postulated CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 1. Research Design 2. Sources of Data 1. Primary Sources of Data 2. Secondary Sources of Data 3. Population of study 4. Sample Design and Determination of Sample Size . Methods of Data Collection 1. Questionnaire Design, Distribution and Collection of Responds 2. Secondary Method of Data Collection 3. 6Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 1. Data Presentation 2. Presentation According to Key Research Question 2. Analysis Base d on Research Hypothesis CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 5. Summary of Findings 5. 1. Conclusion 5. 2. Recommendation. References Bibliography Appendix CHAPTER ONE 1. 1INTRODUCTION: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Corporate Social Responsibility an essentially American phenomenon has over the years become a major concern in Western Europe and in other countries of the world following the western model of development. According to Drucker, (1986:66). The genesis of the debate on the concept of corporate social responsibility has been traced to the wave of crisis in social values that engulfed America in the post World War II period and most especially in the sixties. The Chief Executive of General Motors who observed the changing trend could not help observing: I am concerned about a society that has demonstrably lost confidence in its institutions – in the government, in the press, in the church, in the military, as well as in business†. Business to America has had a most unique history. Its development growth and impact on social life in America since the civil war II is almost common knowledge. What may not be common knowledge, however, is the fact that business which has hither to shaped and controlled the lives of millions of Americans some two hundred years ago is today being threatened by a wave of protests from various publics it uses to serve. The crisis of confidence in the social role of business as made explicit in debates on corporate social responsibility points to the fact that America sees big business as a big powerful machine gone out of control. You read "Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Telecommunication" in category "Essay examples" And efforts to control and at least re-orientate its directions form the core of the argument of all who urge business to change with the times. In other words, to deemphasize its so much vaunted profit maximization dogma and pay attention to the human lives and environment which it is subtly, ruthlessly and almost surely grinding out of existence. As one of the protagonists has viewed the concept of corporate social responsibility it is a crude blend of long-run profit-making and altruism, a doctrine which fuses social values with profit maximization goals. In the early years of the American Republic and especially in the post civil war reconstruction era, business in America played an almost indispensable role as a powerful social tool for harnessing resources and ensuring material progress. Ducker (1986:66). But as the years rolled on and business began to concentrate and centralize capital, its role in the economy became expansive and pervasive. At the height of prosperity, the captains of industry were heralded as heroes of the society. The later years of the post World War II era harbored a different story. The boom period following the end of World War II soon gave way to a periodic wave of depressions and crisis that was to rock every foundations of society on which business existed. The frustrating economic situation characterized by inflation, unemployment, failing profit, declining investment, pollution of the external environment etc. , pushed Americans to re-examine almost every old values and the assumptions behind them. According to Drucker, (1986:96) the debate on corporate social responsibility did not only take place in the United State of America. The noise of the debate filtered through to other countries that shares similar business cultures with America most especially the Western European countries. While the western European nations have responded positively to the debate, accepted and even implemented some of its own far reaching conclusions it is pertinent to know if the discussions and conclusion so far reached have had an impact on the countries periphery. One of the objectives of this study is to investigate to what extent the current debate on corporate social responsibility and its conclusion has trickled down to the periphery of Nigeria in particular and how it is applied here by firms who have embarked on such projects in Nigeria. It is believed by the researcher that although the present level of industrialization does not entitled us to discuss the issue on the same platform with the industrialized western economies; the fact that they are imitating their path to industrialization should imply that we should study their experience closely to avoid mistakes. It is arguable also that foreign corporate bodies operating in host countries especially in the Third World countries are most likely to pay lip service to such principles as corporate social responsibility which are most likely to be of benefit to their host countries. Also local or indigenous organizations can neglect this principle of corporate social responsibility to their host communities. These days, social responsibility of business is on what should or might be done to tackle and solve problems of society. The emphasis is on what contribution they can make to such social problems as protected and restoration of physical environment, racial discrimination or social discrimination. In striving to satisfy its corporate goals and achieve its objectives the organization cannot operate in isolation from its environment. . The performance of corporate social responsibility is not undertaking to boost profit at the short-run but to meet some social needs, aspirations, and profit at the long-run. Organizations who hold this view of corporate social responsibility believes that once it does what is expected of it by law and its host community the organization is socially responsible. Owing to the vastness of this topic – corporate social responsibility we shall have to restrict our investigation to manageable proportions by focusing attention on telecommunication sector Nigeria, using Globacom Nigeria Limited. The telecommunication industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in Nigeria. There are so many telecommunication companies owned by foreign and local corporate bodies in Nigeria. These telecommunication industries have covered a large area in Nigeria from urban to rural areas in the country. As a result of this, the researcher has selected one out of the many telecommunication companies to take a look at its corporate social responsibility project. The researcher has decided to pick on Globacom Nigeria Limited, Enugu Zone, and has decided to look into its corporate social responsibility activities, to see how the company has gone in performing its social responsibility in host community. 1. 2STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: In recent years there have been series of arguments, debates and controversies among businessmen, academics, government officials and the society in general on what should be the principle objectives or business enterprises. Over the years, managers have neglected the problems created by corporate firms to their host communities. These problems possess a lot of threat and sometimes make life difficult for these communities. The privilege giving to organization to operate in the society stems from the act that society believes that there is a mutual interdependency existing between them, that is, the organization and the society. The relationship between organizations and their host community has become increasingly important. The decision made in an organization may influence community prosperity and also national and even internationally economic activity might be affected. An example of these problems is the on-going crisis in the Niger Delta region which has led to the destruction of lives and properties. There are accusations from the youths in these areas that companies misdirect their efforts and resources that they should have used to develop the community to bribe opinion leaders in order to overlook their responsibilities to the community, and these have caused a lot of acrimonies between the two parties, community and the firm. These same problems can also be identified in other arrears and in other communities across the country where large companies are located. This prompted the researcher with deep sense of burden to these communities to unraveled the need for these large firms to see the need in helping the society solve some of its problems, most especially those they help to create, and involve in philanthropic donations to the needs of these communities and provide the community with some social amenities. Despite the roles played by organizations carrying out corporate social responsibility and the growing importance of social responsibility, the following issues have not been fully addressed: i. Why should organizations be socially responsible to their environment? ii. What benefits do organizations get from performing its corporate social responsibility? iii. Why is social responsibility considered as a waste drain of business resources? iv. Are organizations in Nigeria socially responsible? In view of the above, the researcher has taken up the issue of social responsibility in the telecommunication sector in Nigeria and used Globacom Nigeria as a case study to examine the extent of the company’s involvement in corporate social responsibility. 1. 3PURPOSE OF STUDY: For organizations to successfully survive in business, it must recognize the importance of social responsibility to the society. The broad objective of the study is to – i. Examine the argument for and against corporate social responsibility. ii. Whether Globacom Nigeria Limited has been involved in social responsibility activities, and if so, to what extent have they been involved in their corporate social responsibility to their environment? iii. To examine whether the immediate environments are taking into cognizance during planning and implementation of social responsibility, iv. To know the factors that motivates the adoption of corporate social responsibility. 1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS/HYPOTHESIS: In pursuit of the objective of identifying the effectiveness and workability of corporate social responsibility the following hypothesis have been formulated, which intend to test in the course of this study: Ho: The organization involvement in social responsibility does not have an effect on the company and its host community. Ha: The organizations in social responsibility activities have an effect on the c ompany and its host community. Ho: Globacom corporate social responsibility programme does not enhance organization-societal relationship. Ha: Globacom corporate social responsibility programme enhances organization-societal relationship. We also intend to answer the following research questions to collaborate with the above hypothesis. 1. Why is social responsibility necessary in an organization? 2. To what extent does an organization involvement in social responsibility have an effect on the company and its host community? 3. What factors motivates the company in carrying out social responsibility activities? 4. Who do you think are the beneficiaries of the company social responsibility activities? 1. 5SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: The study of social responsibility of a business organization is hoped to be of benefits not only to student’s businessmen, government, customers, community, stockholders, academics, but the whole society. The study also hopes to highlight the problem associated with social responsibility and to make use of the analysis to improve the working situations thereby minimizing the problems social responsibility conflict in that organization and its environment as well. Finally, the study will inform all at large, the need for corporate social responsibility not only to the firm, but to the society at large. . 6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: This research work focuses on the telecommunication industry in Nigeria, but with particular reference to Globacom Nigeria, Enugu sector. This research was faced with a lot of problems and limitations. The major problem acting as a limitation was a problem of Nigerians attitude to the supply of data to a researcher due to fear. Secondly, be cause of financial constraints, the scope and dimension of this study could not be extended beyond this limit. 1. 7DEFINITION OF SPECIAL TERM 1:(Globacom): Global communication. It is a name of a telecommunication firm in Nigeria. Global communication limited is the case study for this research work. 2: (Glo): A short name for Globacom. 3: (CSR): Corporate social responsibility. 4: (BSc): Bachelor of Science. 5: (NCE): National Certificate in Education. 6: (OND): National Diploma. 7 🙠 HND): Higher National Diploma. 8: (MBA): Master in Business Administration. 9: (SSCE): Senior School Certificate Examination. 10: (FSLC): First School Leaving Certificate. REFERENCES Drucker, P. (1968). Management Task, Responsibility and Practice. London ; Pan Books Limited. Drucker,P. (1981). The New Meaning of Social Responsibility. California Management Journal Review, vol. 6(2):p 58-62. CHAPTER TWO 2. 1THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK THE CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT: No business enterprise exists and operates in a vacuum. Business operates in a dynamic environment. The growth and survival of a business is dependent on the environment and other factors. A better understanding of the environment and how it works will help in the understanding of the social responsibility of business. According to Edgar (1982:61) business organization is a system, and a system can be defined as a set of interdependent parts which come together to make up the whole business. Each of these components or parts contributes and in return receives something from the whole which in turn is interdependent on the environment. A system may be closed or open. A system is said to be closed when it does not receive inputs from outside, that is its external environment nor does it contribute output to the external environment. A system can be said to be an open system when it exchanges inputs and outputs with its environment. It gives output to the environment and in return receives inputs from the environment. The case study which is Globacom Nigeria is an example of an open system as it receives inputs and gives outputs to the environment. Environment can be defined as surroundings, especially the materials and other influences which affect the growth, development and existence of a living being or a business organization. Enudu (1999: 98), citing Onuoha (1991:121) defined an environment as a set of conditions and forces which surround and have direct or indirect influence on the organization. Generally speaking, environmental variables that affect business organizations may be classified into internal and external environmental variables. An organization’s survival is dependent upon a series of exchange and the continual interaction with the environment gives rise to a number of broader responsibilities to society in general. To understand the business organizational environments, we must borrow some concepts from Systems Theory. One of the basic assumptions of systems theory is that business organizations are neither self-Sufficient nor self-constrained. Rather, they exchange resources with and care dependent on the external. Thus, business organizations take inputs such as raw materials, money, labour and energy from the external environment, transform them into products or services and then send them back as outputs to the external environment. Koontz et al (1980:89) maintained that the relationship between a business organization and its environment can be examined in three main ways:- First, a business organization can be viewed as importing various kinds of inputs such as man, materials, money and machine. These inputs are then transformed to produce outputs such as products and services,Secondly, in the study of the relationships between business organization and its environment is to focus on those publics which the business organization must service. These publics are, Employees, consumers, suppliers, stakeholders, government and the community where the business organization is located. A third approach is to view the business organization as operating in an external environment of opportunities and constraints which some authorities classified as economic, political, legal, technology etc. Thus, all managers whether they operate in a small or medium or large business organization, take into consideration the elements and force of their external environment. It is necessary for us to discuss the various environment of a business. ELEMENTS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT ACTION ENVIRONMENT OF AN ORGANIZATION: Fig. 4. [pic] Sources: Onuoha: Management (1999:121) ELEMENTS OF DIRECT ACTION ENVIRONMENT. Direct-action elements are elements of the environment that directly influence a business organization’s activities. Some people prefer to refer to â€Å"direct-action† as the task environment. The direct-action environment is made up of stakeholder. The stakeholders fall into two categories: External and Internal stakeholders. Stakeholders are defined as individual or groups that are directly or indirectly affected by business organization’s pursuit of its objectives. INTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS: These are groups or individuals such as employees, shareholders that are not strictly part of a business organization’s environment but for whom an individual manager remains responsible. They are a part of the environment for which an individual manager is responsible. EMPLOYEES: The employees of a business organization render services. They also involve in the production of goods or services which the business organization sell. Therefore, managers must always seek to get the right caliber of workers in the workforce, SHAREHOLDERS: The shareholders are primarily interested in the return on investment but in recent time, managers and shareholders have become interested in how a business is run. The governing structure of a large company allows shareholders to influence a company by exercising their voting rights. MANAGEMENT: The management of an organization is responsible for the smooth running of the organization while they deal with multiple shareholders and balancing conflicting claims. EXTERNAL STAKEHOLDERS: CUSTOMERS: Consumers are those people and organizations that buy the organization’s products and services. They therefore, exchange resources, usually in form of money. Their patronage or lack of it determines whether a business organization’s operations will be successful or not. Customers and market situation determines selling tactics that should be employed by the organization in marketing the organization’s products or services. Usually, a marketing manager analyses the potential customers and market conditions and direct a marketing company based on that analysis. Globacom managers understands this, that is why they make sure that their product quality is unbeatable and prices less so that competitors will not have an hedge over them in the market. They also make sure that they have their products readily available for distributors at all time, and this they do by having depots all over the nation. SUPPLIERS: Suppliers are those people and organizations that provide the materials, equipment and spare parts with which business organizations operate. Every organization buys inputs – raw materials, services, energy, equipment and labour – from the environment and uses them to produce output. What the organization brings in from the environment and what it does with the price of its final products. Organizations are therefore dependent upon suppliers of materials and labour and will try to take advantage of competition among suppliers to obtain lower prices, better quality work and faster deliveries. GOVERNMENT: In Nigeria, the relationship between government and business organizations has been that of restrictive control in nature. Government had acted as a protector of business through maintaining domestic peace and security. Government has shown interest in the private sector of the economy and this they do by regulating the activities of all productive organizations to public interest and reinforcing laws and establishing agencies or regulatory bodies to ensure that these laws are adhered to. Like consumers and environment advocates, are social critics who use the political process to further a position on particular issues. Managers have to study and defect groups formed to oppose the company on any issue. Special interest groups can use the media to gain attention; therefore managers must take both present and future special interest groups into account when setting organization strategy. MEDIA: The economy and business activity have always been covered by the media, since these topics affect so many people. There is an increase reports of business activities in the media, therefore, managers who regularly deals with the media should often seek for professional coaching to improve their ability to present information and opinions clearly and effectively. LABOUR UNIONS: Labour Unions seek to improve the quality of work-life of members of another by giving workers more control over what they do and how they do it. Managers through collective bargaining try to negotiate wages, working conditions, hours, etc. They have improved workers sense of responsibility and participation. FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS: Business organizations depend on a variety of financial institutions, including commercial banks, investment banks and insurance companies to supply funds for maintaining and expanding their activities. Both old and new or well established business may rely on short-term loans to build new facilities. Managers have to establish and maintain a working relationship with these institutions. COMPETITORS: A firm must always seek to increase its market share by gaining additional customers or it must beat its competitors in entering and exploiting and expanding market. These it must do by defining its marketing strategy. ELEMENTS OF INDIRECT-ACTION ENVIRONMENT: These are elements of the external environment that affect the climate in which a business organization’s activities take place, but do not affect the business organization directly Stoner et al (1996:63). Some people refer to indirect-action as the â€Å"General environment†. The following are factors that influence business organization in an indirect-action environment:- ECONOMIC VARIABLES: These are factors, such as inflations, recessions, price stability, tax, etc, that affects business. These are general economic conditions and trends that may be factors in an organization. Other important economic variables are capital, economic stability and government fiscal policies. In addition to the above economic controls, Farmer and Richman (1965:56), identified three other economic variables, one of them they referred to as factor endowment†, which is the extent to which a country has available natural resources, adequate and useful labour, and capital which can be employed for efficient production. Another one is the size of market and the third major pervasive economic constraint is the extent to which social overhead capital is available. SOCIAL VARIABLES: These are fact ors such as demographics, lifestyles and social values that may influence and organization from its external environment. POLITICAL VARIABLES: These are factors that may influence an organization’s activities as a result of political process or climate. The political process involves competition between different interest groups, each seeking to advance its own values and goals. Political legal variable also refer to political and legal environment which relate primarily to compel of laws, regulations and government agencies and their actions which affects all kinds of enterprises. TECHNOLOGICAL VARIABLES: One of the most pervasive factors in the environment is technology. The term ‘Technology’ refers to the sum total of knowledge we have of ways to do things, which affects an organization’s activities. APPROACHES TO SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. By approaches to social responsibility, we mean the perception or view of people about the concept. While it is no longer new that social responsibility of business is necessary, there is still no consensus on what actually constitutes social responsibility. The various perceptions of social responsibility are: i. Social obligation ii. Social Reactions iii. Social Responsiveness. SOCIAL OBLIGATION: Those who hold this view of social responsibility believes that once the organization does what is expected of it by the law, that it is socially responsible. They believe that the major role of business in the society is to make profit. Once this objective is achieved within the ambit of the law, the business is socially responsible. Their target therefor4e is to meet government standards and not to exceed it even if it would benefit society more. The proponents of social obligation believe that the first obligation of business is to return high profit to its shareholders for whom it is primarily accountable. The also believe that the duty of executing social programmes is that of the government and not business. Organizations are socially responsible when they pay taxes to government to enable it embark on these programmes. Furthermore, the cost of social responsibility will ultimately be added to the cost of the goods and services offered by the companies, thereby leading to higher prices. This then means that it is the people who are paying for social service and not the company. SOCIAL REACTIONS: This view of social responsibility believes that business must be concerned about the social costs of its activities. It should exceed legal set targets in its attempt to responsible behavior. In doing this, it is helping to solve some of the societal problems arising from activities and even those that are traceable to it. Social reaction therefore according to Seithi (1976:66) means behavior in reaction to currently prevailing social norms, values and expectations to various groups in the society for it to be socially responsible. Consequently any business that does not react favorably to the demands of societal groups is not socially responsible even if it means its legal obligation to society. SOCIAL RESPONSIVENESS: Business is socially responsible if its actions are anticipatory and preventive instead of reactive and restorative Seithi, (1976:70). To this group, social responsibility means acting in anticipation of the future needs of society. A socially responsive organization sees itself as part of the society and as such takes stand on public issues and contributes its quota toward solving societal problems. It does not have to wait for groups to make demands on it before it acts rather, it initiates social programmes which it feels would help society and execute them without prompting from any quarters. 2. 2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF GLOBACOM NIGERIA LIMITED: Globacom Limited is a Nigeria multinational telecommunication company. Glo is a privately owned telecommunication company that started operations on the 29th August, 2003 in Nigeria. Globacom is privately owned by Mike Adenuga Group which consists of Equitorial Trust Bank, Conoil Plc. , and a petroleum marketing company producing a crude exploration company. The sole aim of introducing and lunching Globacom in Nigeria on the 29th of August, 2003 was to provide telecommunication service to the people of Nigeria as a means of solving the problem of inadequate communication flow. Although Glo Mobil was the fourth telecommunication operator in Nigeria, within seven years of the company’s operation, its subscriber base has grown to over 25 million. Glo has an estimate of over 25 million subscribers. It has a reputation as one of the fastest growing multinational carrier in the world and the vision for Glo is to be the biggest and best carrier in Africa. Globacom currently operates in four countries in West Africa namely Republic of Benin, Ghana, Ivory Coast and Nigeria. Its Headquarter is in Lagos, Nigeria because it is 100 percent a Nigerian owned company. According to Globacom Annual Report: (2009:6). In August, 2003, Glo Mobile was launched in Nigeria and it introduced lower tariffs, pay per second billing and along other value added services. Glo Mobile is a subsidiary of Glo, its Glo Mobile Network Unit. Globacom ability to become the best telecommunication company in Africa and all over the world is due to the strategies they design in other to carry out their business smoothly. An example of their strategic business units are, Globacom Broad Access, Glo Gateway, Glo 1 Submarine cable, etc. In 2005, Glo Mobile introduced Glo fleet manager which is the most comprehensive Vehicle Tracking solution offered to save time and money. Glo fleet manager helps managers, transporters fleet operator manage their fleet effectively and efficiently. They also introduced the Glo Mobile Internet Service which provides subscribers with speed access to all popular Internet sites which have been customized for mobile phone browsing. The company in 2006 introduced Black Berry (A) which is the leading wireless solution that keeps mobile professionals around the world connected to people and information. In 2009, Globacom launched Blackberry prepaid service which gives subscribers options to pay daily, weekly or monthly for the service The company now provides coverage to over 85 cities and towns and well over 5000 communities and villages spinning every geo-political zone and 36 of Nigeria’s States. Globacom products and services are available at its friendship centers which have a structure and some departments. It also have nationwide network of dealership, banks and convenience channels where its products are sold. Under the chairmanship of Otunba Michael Adeniyi Ishola Adenuga Jr. Globacom has turned out to become the fastest and best telecommunication industry in West Africa. Recently, in June, 2008, Glo mobile was launched in Republic of Benin. Glo Mobile showed unprecedented growth through sales of 600,000 Sim Cards in the first ten days of operation. Glo acquired an operating license through its Glo Mobile division in Ghana and currently has about 11 millions subscrib ers in Ghana, and in 2009, the company acquired submarine cable landing rights and international gateway services in Ivory Coast. Globacom Nigeria Limited is a leading telecommunication company in Nigeria, which has been at the forefront of promoting sustainable development and high standards of corporate governance and is one of the few signatories that keep date to the convention of business integrity. According to Frank Nweke, (2006. 5. guardian newspaper) â€Å"Glo is an authentic Nigeria Company. What is has achieved in the past years demonstrates great potentials, great opportunities, drive for excellence and commitment to Nigeria†. The Nigeria Communication Commission awarded the company as the second national operator driven by the success of Globacom in Nigeria. DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. The concept â€Å"Corporate Social Responsibility† has been defined in many ways – Most writers on social responsibility see the concept as a disposition of an organization to exhibit â€Å"Missionary rather than â€Å"Mercenary† attitude towards the society. Holmes and watts (2000:19) on behalf of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development provide a reasonable representative definition as: The continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and other families as well as Those of the local community and society at large. Caroll (1979:96) proposed a four-part definition of corporate social responsibility. It consists of Economic, Legal, Ethical and Altruistic or discretionary corporate social responsibility. â€Å"The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and discretionary expectations that the society ask of organization at a given point in time†. Caroll (1979:98). An organization’s economic responsibility to the society entails producing goods and services that society wants and setting them at a fair price that society wants and accepts. The goods and services must be of quality standard. The Legal responsibility that a company has to its society is to comply with the law and â€Å"play by the rules of the game†. (Lantos 2001:6). Ethical responsibility embraces the range of norms, standards and expectations that reflect a concern for what consumers, employees, share-holders and the community regard as fair, just or in keeping with respect for or protection of stakeholders moral rights. Caroll, (1997:100). Discretionary responsibilities are purely voluntary and often guided by the personal values of an individual within a company. They go beyond the legal and are not generally expected in ethical sense. Caroll definition remains a useful basis for analysis as it encompasses the crucial elements of a company’s responsibility to society. According to Andrews (1977:43), the concept of corporate social responsibility can be described as the intelligent and objective concern which constrain individuals no matter how profitable, and leads them in the direction of the positive contribution to human betterment. Luttons and Hodget (1976: 24) noted it as the means to pursue those policies, to make decision, or to follow these line of action which are desirable in terms of objective and value of the society. Imoiseh (1985:27) noted that the major limitation of these conceptions about social responsibility is the failure to take into account:’ i. Who determines what action of an organization constitutes social responsibility? ii. Where should be the â€Å"arena† for the organization to perform social responsibility? Corporate social responsibility can be best understood in terms of the changing relationship between business and society. The European Commission’s (2001. vol6:22) Green Paper on Corporate social responsibility defines CSR as â€Å"a concept whereby companies decide voluntarily to contribute to a better society and a cleaner environment†.. According to Caroll, (1979:56) corporate social responsibility is about businesses and other organizations going beyond the legal, obligations to manage the impact they have on the environment and society. In particular, this could include how organizations interact with their employees, suppliers, customers and the communities in which they operate, as well as the extent they attempt to protect the environment. The notion of a company look beyond profit to their role in society is generally termed corporate social responsibility, involves a company linking itself with ethical, values, transparency, employee relations, compliance with legal requirements and overall respect for the community in which the operate. It goes beyond the occasional community service action, however, as CSR is a corporate philosophy that drives strategic decision making, partner selection, hiring practices and ultimately brand development Corporate social responsibility also known as corporate responsibilities, corporate citizenship, responsible business or corporate social performance, is a form of corporate self regulation integrated into a business model. Lately, CSR policy would function as a business built-in, self regulating mechanism whereby business would monitor and ensure it adherence to law, ethical standards, and international norms. Business would embrace responsibility for the impact of their activities on the environment, consumers, employees, communities, stakeholders and all other members of the public sphere, furthermore, business would proactively promote the public interest by encouraging community growth and development, and voluntarily eliminating practices that harm the public sphere, regardless of legality. Essentially CSR is the deliberate inclusion of public interest into corporate decision making and the honoring of a triple bottom line: People, Planet and Profit. The entirety of corporate social responsibility can be discerned from the three words obtained within its title phrase: ‘Corporate’, ‘Social’, and ‘Responsibility’. Therefore, in broad terms, corporate social responsibility covers the responsibilities corporations or other profit organizations have to the society within which they are based and operate. More specifically, corporate social responsibility involves a business identifying its stakeholder groups and incorporating in their needs and values within the strategic and day-to-day decision-making process. CATEGORIES OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: Public relations scholars have classified corporate social responsibility into various categories. Sam Black’s four categories of corporate social responsibility are Enterprise, Education, Arts and Culture and environment. Of recent, many organizations added sports to their corporate social responsibility activities. Again, Seithi (1987) provides what he calls a partial list of social responsibility categories to include being responsible for: ? Product Lines; not producing dangerous products, maintaining good product standard that are environmentally safe. ? Marketing Practices; responding to consumer complaints setting fair prices and maintaining fair advertising message contents. ? Employee Services; training, counseling, granting allowances for the welfare of employees. ? Corporate Philanthropy; contributing to community development activities and involving social projects. Environmental Activities; embarking on pollution control projects, adherence to federal standards and evaluation procedures of new packages to ensure ease of disposal or possible recycling. ? Employee Safety and Health; setting effective work environment policies, accident safeguard, food and medical facilities. Through these categories of corporate social responsibility, a company is able to provide a healthy business env ironment for its operations and contribute to the well-being of the community 2. 3 CURRENT LITERATURE ON THEORIES AS POSTULATED. ARGUMENT AGAINST CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY The most eminent personality against social responsibility is the late Milton Friedman who argued against social responsibility on social and economic ground. Milton Friedman in his word said that â€Å"there is one and only one social responsibility of business – to use resources and engage in activities design to increase its profit so long as it stays within the rules of the game, which is to say, engage in open and free competition without deception or fraud†. He argues that managers are agents to stakeholders but if they spend corporate funds for social purpose they are essentially stealing from stakeholders. David Henderson puts it as follows – companies will best discharged the responsibilities which specifically belong to them by taking profitability as a guide, subject always acting within the law, and that they should not go out of their way to define and promote wider self chosen objective. Some arguments are stated thus:- LESS ECONOMIC EFFIENCY: The primary task of business is to maximize profit by focusing strictly on economic activities. This school of thought believes that concentrating resources in the social area could lead to less economic efficiency and therefore actually become detrimental to the society. It holds that when business organization concentrates resources that suppose to be used for other meaningful economic activities on social arrears, the tendency is that, it will reduce the economic efficiency of the organization which may not argue well for the society at large. Social involvement could reduce economic efficiency, ? EXCESSIVE COST THAN BENEFITS TO SOCIETY: Cost incurred in undertaking some of these social responsibility programmes are higher than the benefits society will derive from them and business organization knows the way of passing this burden to society in terms of raising prices of their product or services to excessive levels to the detriment of the consumers. Invariably, society still bears the burden. VIOLATION OF BUSINESS DECISION-MAKING: There is a believe that undertaking some social responsibility activities violates sound economic business decision making that should rightfully concentrate on earning profit. ? TO LACK OF SKILLS ON THE PART OF MANAGERS DETERMINE SOCIALLY DESIRABLE PROJECTS: Managers are neither trained nor do them posses the skills and knowledge of resources to determine which social desirable project to support. Even where they have the knowledge, it may not be easy as they think because of the technicality involved. THERE IS NOT COMPLETE SUPPORT FOR INVOLVEMENT IN SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: Consequently, disagreements among groups with different viewpoints will cause friction. However, it should be noted that Friedman criticism was directed solely against the introduction of corporate social responsibility within profit-making business organizations in the private sectors. ARGUMENT FOR SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: The arguments for social responsibility rest on the notion that accepting social responsibility is the correct moral position of the firm. People who argue in favour of social responsibility claims that our modern industrial society faces many serious social problems brought by larger corporations such as water, land and air pollution and resources depletion, they should play a major role in solving this problem. They also argued that because businesses are legally defined entities with most of the same privileges as private citizens, business should not try to avoid its obligation as citizens. Advocates of social responsibility points out that while government organizations have stretched their budget to their limit many large businesses often have surplus revenue that could potentially be used to help solve social problems. Another more general reason for social responsibility is profit itself. For example, organizations that make clear and visible contributions to its society can achieve enhanced regulation and profit benefit at the long run. Other factors on which the argument for social responsibility is based are :- ? The improvement of internal opportunities and the creation of better job environment. The business firms controls so many resources and can devote some of the resources to the betterment of the society. ? Social investments create a favourable public image thus a firm may attract customers, employees and investors. ? It is better to prevent problems than to cure them. It may be easier to help hardcore unemployed than to cope with social unrest. ? Social responsibility actions may increase profit in the long-run. There are certain actions of the business in relation to social responsibility which may increase the company’s profitability. For example, identifying consumer needs and wants, producing goods tailored to these needs may not produce desired result in the short run but on the long run. More profit can be realized with increase in productivity. Social responsibility makes business organization have more concern for society. Businesses must be concerned about society’s interest and needs because society is affected by business operation. FACTORS MOTIVATING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. Business operates in a global market where companies are increasing in the public eye. It is difficult for companies to hide in discrepancies as they are highly visible and vulnerable to attacks from stakeholders. Companies need to be sensitive to societal anxiety if they are to avoid damage to their reputation. These anxieties changes over time as different issues come into the public eye. So companies must be dynamic in the way they respond. The main factors that may motivate companies to carry out social responsibility are stakeholder management, financial performance, consumer pressure, risk management, attracting employees and personal values. STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT: Stakeholder management is a generally accepted concept in the business community. Stakeholders have been discarded as â€Å"the groups and individual who benefit from or are harmed by, and whose rights are violated or respected by, corporate actions (Freeman 2006:20). Increasingly, corporations are motivated to become more socially responsible because their most importantly stakeholders expect them to understand and address the social and community issues that are relevant to them. Understanding what causes are important to employees is business benefits that can be derived rom increased employee engagement that is, more loyalty, improved recruitment, increased retention, high productivity and so on. Greater media exposure, environmental and health related incidents resulting from site management or planning decisions have ensured that effective management of stakeholders has risen up the list of priorities for company managers. The various stakeholders a company may have are shown in the model below: Fig. 3. [pic] Source: Onuoha: Management (1999:106). Some questions may be asked, if business is to be responsible to the society, whom in society must it be responsible to? Society today consists of a wide range of people who have interests, expectations and demands as to what companies and organizations ought to provide, and the ways in which they should behave. Companies are increasingly embracing these stakeholder groups and individuals, whether by considering or including them in decision-making. The motivation here is for business to become involved in corporate social responsibility by addressing the wide range and constant set of demands made by stakeholders. FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE: Since the early 1980s a significant body of corporate social responsibility research has centered on the debate over the relationship between corporate social responsibility and strong financial performance. Government agencies and organizations promoting the corporate social responsibility agenda seems to be convinced that, assuming a social responsibility role will bring financial gain to the business world. Social responsibility is a powerful way of making sustainable competitive profit and achieving lasting values for the shareholders as well as for the stakeholders. Therefore being involved in social responsibility is a win- win opportunity not just for companies and financial investors but also for the society at large. Research carried out has shown that there is a good relationship between social performance and financial benefit. That is, organizations that are involved in social responsibility activities stands out to gain financial reward at the long-run and this has been a motivating factor to the organization adoption of corporate social responsibility. Furthermore, McWilliams and Siegel (1979:88) predict that there is a neutral relationship between social responsibility activities and company’s financial performance. In their study, they investigated this relationship using a theory of the firm’s perspective, economic scale and cost benefit analyses. Their main conclusions were: – The neutral relationship exists because the company that carries out social responsibility activities will have higher cost but higher revenue. While the company that has no social responsibility activities sill have lower cost and lower revenue, thus, profit is equal. Large firms will have lower average cost for providing social responsibility activities than small companies. – There are optimal levels that will maximize profit while satisfying the demand for social responsibility from multiple stakeholders. The ideal levels of social responsibility can be determined by cost benefit analysis. CONSUMERS: Consumer’s press ure and damage to the global image of a popular brand is one of the reasons why companies may be motivated to assume the mantle of social responsibility. Much recent pressure has centered on the protection of the environment, example campaign against water pollution (Niger Delta Regions), road maintenance, consumers protection, protection of human rights, safeguarding jobs, etc. In Nigeria, organizations and agencies like National Food and Drug Administration Campaign, Standard Organization of Nigeria and National Drug Law Enforcement Agency, has been an advocate for consumer’s protection especial in the current climate of concern about public health. It is high profile consumer related concern such as these that will force more and more companies into adopting principles of social responsibility. RISK MANAGEMENT: Risk management centers on problems that can be caused by consumer’s pressure. However, today’s management encompasses a wider range of stakeholders, each of which must be considered if a company is to avoid variety pitfalls and protect its reputation. Companies often conduct business in areas where they can be at low risk especially working in a densely populated area or with companies with irresponsible practices. Social responsibility activities can be use to mitigate this risk. The increased exposure of companies to the glare of public scrutiny has encouraged business to increase transparency in their environmental and social disclosures. This has led to a growing trend reporting and a commitment of sustainability of social performance. EMPLOYEES: Many studies has shown that investing in employees can bring direct benefits to a company both financially and in terms of increased employee loyalty and productivity. Such investment can include schemes like provision of healthcare services to employees, childcare facilities, flexible work hours and job sharing. Employee’s investment is an essential aspect of social responsibility as the workforce is also the community, especially in companies where a substantial portion of employees are likely to come from the local community. Involving employees in social responsibility activities is another way in investing in them. Good social performance also provides companies with a competitive advantage when attracting a skilled force. Applicants are more likely to pursue jobs from socially responsible companies than companies with poor social responsibility performance reputation; they feel that they will have a higher self image when working for responsible companies. PERSONAL VALUES: Companies and individual within an organization may be motivated to carry out social responsibility for moral reasons. Managers of organization may carryout social responsibility activities because of the respect accorded to them for being involved in such activities by members of the society. This approach to corporate social responsibility is described in literature as voluntary or philanthropic social responsibility. But this approach has been questioned by a number of commentators famously Milton Friedman (1970:30) who argued that, â€Å"the social responsibility of business is to increase its profit†. And even more recently by Lantos (2001:56) who argues that voluntary social responsibility lies outside the scope of business responsibility. The answer lies in the personal values and principles of some individuals in business who argues that it is fundamentally the right thing to do. THE BENEFITS OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: Drucker emphasizes the importance of the exercise of social responsibility by business and by managers. This responsibility can no longer be based on the assumption that the self-interest of the owner of property will lead to the public good, or that self-interest and public good can be kept apart and considered to have nothing to do with each other. On the contrary, it requires of the manager that he assume responsibility for the public good, that he subordinate his actions to an ethical standard of conduct, and that he restrains his self-interest and his authority wherever their exercise would infringe upon the common weal and upon the freedom of the individual. An enlightened business recognizes that it is in its own interest to be socially responsible, since an enhanced public image is more likely to be attractive to investors – employees, customers, consumers, suppliers and most community and government. Companies addressing issues related to the right of indigenous people have reaped a lot of benefits. Some of the benefits accruing to business organization that is involved in social responsibility include the following. 1. ENHANCED REPUTATION: Good company performance in relation to sustainability issues can both build reputation while poor performance when exposed can damage brand value. In the course of this research work, it was noted that Globacom Nigeria Limited has a very good reputation in the community where it exists. II. INCREASED ABILITY TO RECRUIT, DEVELOP AND RETAIN STAFF: These can be direct or indirect. The 1999 business Ethics study found that employees are more likely to be loyal when they believe their workplace has ethical practices. An organization that engages in corporate social responsibility will have dedicated and productive employees. IIIBETTER RELATIONS WITH GOVERNMENT: The formal and informal license to operate is a key issue for many companies looking to extend their business. Diligence in meeting social and environmental concerns can result in a reduction in red tape and a more cooperative relationship with government departments. A good relationship with government can give a company significant competitive benefit in terms of gaining a social license to operate from local community, particularly in the resource sector with regard to gaining access to scarce reserves. IV. ENJOYING PREFERRED BUSINESS PARTNER STATUS: Given the opportunity to choose among several bidders for a potential project, some governments are more likely to choose a company with the best reputation with respect to indigenous relations and human rights practices. For instance, Globacom Nigeria has gained a lot of good reputation in the government circle and these are shown by the different award that the management has received both nationally and internationally. When companies take a strategic approach to corporate social responsibility, it would have a positive effect on mainstream business performance. Records have shown how benefits go beyond performance and also how benefits go beyond the long-term intangible measures of success to include direct financial measures (mostly in developing countries). CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY FOCUS IN THE TELECOMMUNICATION INDUSTRY: Service industries such as the banking; insurance retail and telecommunication industries are generally perceived as corporate ‘bodies’ and have an image of modern and clean business. Although, their direct social and environmental foot print is often relatively small; their role as market gatekeepers means that they can have substantial influence. Corporate social responsibility leaders in these sectors tend to be motivated by the strategic need to innovate in fast moving industries as well as the competitive â€Å"war for talent†. The telecommunication industry is the fastest growing sector in Nigeria. As such, corporate social responsibility is a strategy used by these companies to gain their ground and to provide sustainable development to the country and to their host community. They focus on the potentials of information communication technologies to empower enterprise development, educational opportunities and the capacity to respond to emergencies. Developments such as tele-banking, internet trade and others has the potential to save energy, paper and the need to travel, reducing air pollution, and resources waste. However, despite these opportunities, there are a number of problematic issues such as: i. Concerns about the environment and health implication of new technologies ii. The emergence of a â€Å"bridge† between those who have access to educational, health and opportunities through information communication technology and those who do not. iii. Tension between the drive for efficiency and profitability and the need to meet legislated â€Å"universal service obligation† to provide access for all. Many companies in the telecommunication industry are aligning themselves towards the commercial opportunities that sustainable devel How to cite Corporate Social Responsibility in Nigeria’s Telecommunication, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Innovation Leadership and Sustainability

Question: Discuss about the Innovation Leadership and Sustainability. Answer: 1: When I am usually done with stuff, I mostly try to recycle as much as possible. The things that I disposed in the last 24 hours are the trash, some books and some old clothes of mine. I donated the books to a local library. I gave away the clothes to charity. Every time I clean my room or my attic, I happen to find at least 10 things that I could do without yet I still dont throw them away. I took out the trash and the trash truck probably took it to the landfills. I usually recycle the organic wastes that I have in the house and use them as manure for my home and roof garden that I am passionate about (Livesey Kearins, 2002). I am not a shopper but I do get emotionally attached to stuff easily and would not have the heart to throw them out without recycling anything that can be. I have an organized home which I clean on a regular basis and dont need much organization. The only thing I do it have a trash can and a recycle bin in the kitchen so as to categorize what is to be throw n away and what is to be recycled. 2: When thought about open and closed innovations in general, it is hard not to think about them as totally entirely different entities. The open innovation may be carried upon in many businesses when the innovations can lead to generation of revenue through ownership or patents. But the closed innovations are a must when the innovation that is about to be made is for a game-changer idea. Companies like Apple when they were working on the iPhone did not open their innovations to the public up until they launched in the keynote by Steve Jobs. It is better for some ideas to stay open and some to be closed. There must be an equilibrium state in between open and closed innovations where innovations with higher value should be kept for element of surprise and demand creation whereas smaller ideas can be leaked for others to know and to improve the idea in their own way. If I were to consider two stakeholders in my organization, I would pick a colleague and my manager (Sernovitz, Godin and Kawasaki, 2009). This way, if I choose to go with the open innovation as an independent company, I can always trust the colleague who has been working with me for years. And the open innovation to the manager would be like giving the idea to the company without expecting anything in return or possibly made a partner in the future business when this idea is incubated. 3: The nine laws of Biomimicry are so important that every industry is trying to integrate them into their projects and try to trigger innovation in different ways. If I were to choose among the nine, I would probably choose nature runs on sunlight, nature demands local expertise and nature recycles everything (Nidumolu, Prahalad and Rangaswami, 2009). Generating power from solar energy is the being focused on much these days with the effects the earth is facing due to pollution, global warming etc. This has led people to think about relying on renewable sources of energy such as the solar energy. The organization that I am in can be fitted with solar panels on the roof so as to generate power whenever there is sunlight. This can be useful in cutting back of electricity bills. Our company usually needs help like outsourcing of projects and even though the company is capable of bringing in the most sought people from any part of the world, our CEO ask us only to get people from the lo cal area who are experts in the tasks assigned. This is how the nature demands local expertise. In our office, we have a recycle bin where we recycle a lot of paper, cardboards, and whatever we possibly can on a regular basis (Du Plessis, Hargovan and Bagaric, 2010). This gives us the sense of doing our part for safeguarding the environment. This is in reference to the nature recycles everything. 4: Being transparent in a situation like this is the best idea than to hide the facts from the press and media coverage where they already are picking up on every single clue that the company has left in the digital scenario. As a leading official in this situation, since it is the digital era and I can reach the masses in the press of a button or through social media, I would take timely action by apologizing to the general populace. This would earn the trust of the people as this is considered as a bold movement. The initiative is to take up apology route and let the audience know that this problem will be looked into as soon as possible with the help of experts. The apology should not only make clear explanation of how the company is sorry for the actions done knowingly or unknowingly and would take immediate steps to get things fixed. Even while doing this, I should get proper information from my superiors on the things I am allowed to say on the media and should stay cautious at all times (Bovey and Hede, 2001). I would also make sure to find the person who is responsible for hacking the confidential information from the company and take further actions to decide what has to be done legally regarding this. 5: There may be several reasons why people at the workplace may resist changing. They may be accustomed to a specific comfort zone and the change can scare them. Lack of communication in not consulting them before making the change decision may throw them off at times. Most people are bound to the traditional practices that they fear change as they believe that change can bring about new problems. Lack of trust is also a causative factor that can trigger people to resist changing (Boone and Kurtz, 2009). There was a colleague who refused to accept when his lunch breaks were shortened by 10 minutes. There was obviously some miscommunication between him and my employer where they eventually ended by quarreling at the office. The Human Resources asked him about his feelings about the change and he let them know that he could not work freely with the lunch break being shortened and they gave him flexible lunch hours in order to satisfy him. Another colleague passive aggressively resisted changes in our management strategy where he constantly used the silent treatment and would not cooperate well with the team. I, as the team leader, talked to him and he said that he did not like the new management strategy as they made him feel controlled and he was not independent like before (Chesbrough and Appleyard, 2007). Then, we talked to my employers and fixed the changes. 6: There are several reasons why the for-profit organizations go for social causes and non-profit organizations to go in hand with certain commercial products of the business market. When considering things for the benefit of the society, there automatically is some media coverage of the philanthropy. Many people target the social benefits by changing their legal structures in order to boost their income from what they are receiving already. The legal structures in the early stages might not receive the expected attention by the market and the consumers (Hargroves and Smith, 2006). Helping a social cause by supporting a non-profit organization gives them the heads start in having medias attention a lot to offer to the society and can be at good terms with the customers that will possibly trigger the sales in the for-profit organization. This has become a common strategy in the business scenario that almost every company is pulling a publicity stunt more or less. References Boone, L.E. and Kurtz, D.L., 2009.Contemporary business 2010 update. John Wiley Sons. Bovey, W.H. and Hede, A., 2001. Resistance to organisational change: the role of defence mechanisms.Journal of Managerial Psychology,16(7), pp.534-548. Chesbrough, H.W. and Appleyard, M.M., 2007. Open innovation and strategy.California management review,50(1), pp.57-76. Du Plessis, J.J., Hargovan, A. and Bagaric, M., 2010.Principles of contemporary corporate governance. Cambridge University Press. Hargroves, K. and Smith, M., 2006. Innovation inspired by nature: Biomimicry.Ecos,2006(129), pp.27-29. Livesey, S. M., Kearins, K. (2002). Transparent and caring corporations? A study of sustainability reports by The Body Shop and Royal Dutch/Shell. Organization Environment,15(3), 233-258. Nidumolu, R., Prahalad, C.K. and Rangaswami, M.R., 2009. Why sustainability is now the key driver of innovation.Harvard business review,87(9), pp.56-64. Sernovitz, A., Godin, S. and Kawasaki, G., 2009.Word of mouth marketing: How smart companies get people talking. New York: Kaplan.

Friday, March 27, 2020

Adventures Of Huck Finn And Society Essays - English-language Films

Adventures Of Huck Finn And Society "All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn," according to Ernest Hemingway. Along with Ernest, many others believe that Huckleberry Finn is a great book, but is the novel subversive? Since this question is frequently asked, people have begun to look deeper into the question to see if this novel is acceptable for students in schools to read. First off subversive means something is trying to overthrow or destroy something established or to corrupt (as in morals). According to Lionel Trilling, " No one who reads thoughtfully the dialectic of Huck's great moral crisis will ever again be wholly able to accept without some question and some irony the assumptions of the respectable morality by which he lives, or will ever again be certain that what he considers the clear dictates of moral reason are not merely the engrained customary beliefs of his time and place." Trilling feels that Huck Finn is such a subversive character that this will not make people believe in something totally again, because they will fear being wrong like the society in Huckleberry Finn was. I believe this and I think the subversion in the novel is established when Mark Twain begins to question the acceptable morality of society. Twain uses humor and effective writing to make Huckleberry Finn a subversive novel about society in the 19th century. Huck Finn, a boy referred to as "white trash," is a boy that has grown up believing totally what society as taught him. This passage shows an example of how society teaches him. "...And keep them till they're ransomed." "Ransomed? What's that?" "I don't know. But that's what they do. I've seen it in the books, and so of course that's what we've got to do." "Well how can we do it if we don't know what it is?" "Why, blame it all, we've got to do it. Don't I tell you it's in the books? Do you want to go to doing different from what's in the books, and get things all muddled up?" (8-9) This is a conversation between Tom Sawyer and his gang of robbers. This shows how the boys are influenced by society and believe they most follow exactly what is in the books, because that is the right way to do things. In today's society, ransoming someone is a huge crime and is totally unacceptable. In this book, Twain makes ransoming a humorous issue. In fact, throughout the novel Twain makes violence a humorous issue and does not act upon it as a serious issue. This goes with the whole theme of the novel that there is no moral. The way Huck has been raised, he has no clue that what Tom's gang wants to do is ludacrist, and should be totally unacceptable. Twain uses this conversation also to show the beginning of questioning throughout the novel. This will show a pattern of how Huck questions things to learn. Whatever Hucks hears, he believes is the right and acceptable answer. Tom's Gang of Robbers was a part of humorous violence in the novel, but Huck would run into real violence as well. Huck faked his death, and headed down the river, and he decides to go ashore and stays with a stranger family named the Grangerfords. The Grangerfords who were a very nice family, but a family that was obsessed with death. The Grangerfords and another family called the Sheperdson's have had a feud going on for 30 years, but no one knows why. "What's a feud?" "Why, where was you raised? Don't you know what a feud is?" "Never heard of it before-tell me about it." "Well," says Buck, "a feud is this way: A man has a quarrel with another man, and kills him; and then that other man's brother kills him; then the other brothers, on both sides, goes for one another; then the cousins chip in-and by and by everybody's killed off, and there ain't no more feud. But's it's kind of slow, and takes a long time." "Has this one been going on long Buck?" "Well I should reckon! It started thirty year ago, or som'ers along there. There was trouble 'bout something and then a lawsuit to settle it; and the suit went agin one of the men, so he up and shot the man that won the suit-which he would naturally do of course. Anybody would." (108) This conversation is a very important role in determining if this novel is

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Antilegalization Of Marijuana Essays - Drug Control Law, Free Essays

Antilegalization Of Marijuana Essays - Drug Control Law, Free Essays Antilegalization Of Marijuana Dear Congressman, I am honored to be writing to you on such a significant topic of national concern. Average citizens are annoyed and just plain fatigued with the drugs and crime problems in America. These upright citizens, that contribute to the growth of American society, are being told that legalization is a reasonable alternative to dealing with these problems in their communities. Legalization of any drug is not a positive way to fight crime. In fact, there is no legitimate reason to legalize drugs. The Legalization of marijuana is the starting point of the pro-legalization of drugs movement. The issue of legalizing marijuana is truly a controversial one, and certainly one that requires a plethora of considerations at the top levels of the legislative branch. When considering the possibility of legalizing marijuana as a recreational drug, there are a number of concerns that come to mind. Is marijuana physically harmful to the user? Is marijuana an addictive drug? Does the use of marijuana lead to dependency situations? Does it act as gateway to more hazardous drugs? Does the notion of legalizing marijuana send an immoral, wrong message to the youth of America? Mr. Congressman, the answer to all these questions is YES. According to the DEA (1998), the supreme ruler of drug knowledge in America, there are over 10,000 scientific studies that prove marijuana is a harmful and addictive drug. Yet there is no reliable study that proves marijuana has any medical value. Marijuana is an unstable mixture of over 425 chemicals, which when smoked are converted to over thousands. Most of these are toxic, psychoactive chemicals which are unstudied and appear in uncontrolled strengths. Marijuana leads to many different consequences depending on the personality and general characteristics of the individual using the drug. These may include, but are not limited to: premature cancer, addiction, coordination and perception impairment, mental disorders, hostility and increased aggressiveness, general unconcern of life, memory loss, reproductive disabilities, and impairment to the immune system. Marijuana is currently up to 25 times more potent than it was in the 1960's, which makes the drug even more addictive. In 1994, a U.S. Court of Appeals ruled that marijuana should remain a Schedule I drug: highly addictive with no medical usefulness. Marijuana is a harmful substance. The use of marijuana for the purposes of intoxication leads to a number of serious health risks. Research has proven that marijuana damages short term memory, distorts perceptions, impairs complex motor skills, alters the heart rate, can lead to severe anxiety, and can cause paranoia and lethargy. A condition called Amotivational syndrome take places after chronic use. It is defined by Dr. Harry Avis (1996), professor of psychology as, a condition characterized by a lack of ambition or desire to succeed, presumed to be the result of smoking marijuana. As reported in The Medical Journal of Australia, Marijuana causes birth defects, fetal damage, lung cancer, long-term impairment of memory, schizophrenia, suppression of the immune system, and even leukemia in the children of marijuana-smoking mothers (Nahas & Latour, 1992). The National Institute on Drug Abuse (1996) reported that the chemicals found in marijuana smoke suppresses the neurons in the information-processing system of the hippocampus. This is the part of the brain that is crucial for learning, memory, and the integration of sensory experiences with emotions and motivation. Marijuana, should it be legalized, would ruin many Americans' abilities to learn, and would abruptly decay the development and progress of the American Society. Marijuana is dangerous, and it is more dangerous than it ever has been. The federal Drug Abuse Warning Network, or DAWN, claims that recent statistics show increases in the number of patients mentioning marijuana in hospital emergency rooms (The Marijuana Debate Goes On, 1998). Inexperienced users may suffer acute anxiety the first time they use it. This could be a direct result of the increase in potency of marijuana. Growers have access to the latest agricultural technologies and scientific methods which enable them to grow more powerful marijuana. Growers have become extremely sophisticated about developing varieties of marijuana with high concentrations of THC (Is Marijuana Dangerous? Is It Addictive?, 1995). THC, or Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is one of the 400 chemicals in marijuana. It accounts for most of marijuana's psychoactive, or mind-altering, effects (Facts About Marijuana and Marijuana Abuse, 1996). The levels of THC found in the modern drug markets' marijuana are much higher than they have ever been. The concentration of THC will keep increasing in the future. This directly leads to more and stronger addictions to marijuana. One argument that the pro-legalization movement pleads is that